What Should I Know About Sri Lanka?

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka, historically known as Ceylon and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia. It lies in the Indian Ocean, southwest of the Bay of Bengal, separated from the Indian peninsula by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. It shares a maritime border with the Maldives in the southwest and India in the northwest.

Sri Lanka has a population of approximately 22 million and is home to many cultures, languages and ethnicities. The Sinhalese people form the majority of the population, followed by the Sri Lankan Tamils, who are the largest minority group and are concentrated in northern Sri Lanka; both groups have played an influential role in the island’s history. Other long-established groups include the Moors, Indian Tamils, Burghers, Malays, Chinese, and Vedda.

History of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka’s documented history goes back 3,000 years, with evidence of prehistoric human settlements dating back 125,000 years.The earliest known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, known collectively as the Pali canon, date to the fourth Buddhist council, which took place in 29 BCE. Also called the Teardrop of India, or the Granary of the East, Sri Lanka’s geographic location and deep harbours have made it of great strategic importance, from the earliest days of the ancient Silk Road trade route to today’s so-called maritime Silk Road. Because its location made it a major trading hub, it was already known to both East Asians and Europeans as long ago as the Anuradhapura period.

During a period of great political crisis in the Kingdom of Kotte, the Portuguese arrived in Sri Lanka and sought to control its maritime trade, with a part of Sri Lanka subsequently becoming a Portuguese possession. After the Sinhalese-Portuguese war, the Dutch Empire and the Kingdom of Kandy took control of those areas. The Dutch possessions were then taken by the British, who later extended their control over the whole island, colonising it from 1815 to 1948. A national movement for political independence arose in the early 20th century, and in 1948, Ceylon became a dominion. It was succeeded by the republic of Sri Lanka in 1972. Sri Lanka’s more recent history was marred by a 26-year civil war, which began in 1983 and ended in 2009, when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

Info About Sri Lanka

Official name

Government type

Official name

Commercial capital

Administrative capital

Currency (code)

International dialing






Population growth rate

Population Density

Literacy rate

Life Expectancy at Birth

Highest waterfall

Highest mountain

National Flower

National parks and nature reserves area

Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka


Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka


Sri Jayewardenepura

Sri Lankan rupee (LKR)


430km north to south, 225km east to west

4 February 1948



21,128,773 (? Census)


309 people per sq km

Female 87.9 Male 92.5

74 female, 64 male

Bambarakanda, 263m

Pidurutalagala, 2,524m

The Blue Water Lily (Nymphaea stellata)



Mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in the south-central interior


Latitude 5° 55. to 9° 50. north, longitude 79° 42. to 81° 52. , 650km north of the equator

Administrative divisions

9 provinces; Central, North Central, Northern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western, and Eastern Province.

Sri Lanka Climate

Typically tropical, with a northeast monsoon (December to March) Bringing unsettled weather to the north and east, and a southwest Monsoon (June to October) bringing bad weather to the south and west

Ethnic groups

Sinhalese 73.8%, Sri Lankan Moors 7.2%, Indian Tamil 4.6%, Sri Lankan Tamil 3.9%, other 0.5%, unspecified 10% (2001 census)


Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language)18%, and other 8%
Note: English (a link language commonly) is used in government and Spoken competently by about 10% of the population.


Buddhist 69.1%, Muslim 7.6%, Hindu 7.1%, Christian 6.2%, unspecified 10% (2001 census)

Time zone

Sri Lankan Standard Time is five and a half hours ahead of GMT. (Allowance should be made for summer-time changes in Europe.)


230. 240 volts, 50 cycles AC. If you travel with a laptop computer bring a Stabilizer.


Sri Lankan’s most dynamic sectors are food processing, textiles and apparel, Food and beverages, port construction, telecommunications, and insurance And banking. In 2006, plantation crops made up only 15% of exports (90% in 1970), while textiles and garments accounted for more than 60%. about 800,000 Sri Lankans work abroad, 90% of them in the Middle East, They Send home more than US$1 billion a year.

Labor force

34.3% of the labor population is employed in agriculture, 25.3% in Industry an 40.4% in services: 40.4% (30 June 2006 est.) The unemployment rate is 5.7% (2007 est.)

Agriculture & products

Rice, sugarcane, grains, pulls, oilseed, pieces, tea, rubber, coconuts milk, Eggs, hides, beef, fish.
Industries Processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, tobacco, and other agricultural commodities; telecommunications, insurance, banking; clothing, textiles; cement, petroleum refining.


Textiles and apparel; tea and spices; diamonds, emeralds, rubies; coconut products, rubber manufactures, fish.


Main import commodities are textile fabrics, mineral products, petroleum, Foodstuffs, machinery, and transportation equipment: $ 10.61 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.). Percentage of main commodities from main import partners: India 19.6%, China 10.5%, Singapore 8.8%, Iran 5.7%, Malaysia 5.1%, Hong Kong 4.2%, Japan 4.1% (2006)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Purchasing power parity: $81.29 billion (2007 est.).
Official exchange rate: $30.01 billion (2007 est.)
Real growth rate: 6.3% (2007 est.)
Per capital: $4,100 (2007 est.)
Composition by sector: Agriculture: 16.5%
Industry: 26.9%

Gross National Product (GNP)

Sri Lanka is placed in 76th place in GNP figures of the world is nation With $22.8 billion (2005)

Flag description

Yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-see panel has two equal Vertical bands of green (hoist side) and Orange; the other panel is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow Lion holding a sword, and there is a yellow boo leaf in each corner; The yellow field appears as a border around the entire flag and extends between the two panels.

Currant Situation of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is a developing country, ranking 73rd on the Human Development Index. It is the highest-ranked South Asian nation in terms of development and has the second-highest per capita income in South Asia. However, the ongoing economic crisis has resulted in the collapse of its currency, rising inflation, and a humanitarian crisis due to a severe shortage of essentials. It has also led to an eruption of street protests, with citizens successfully demanding that the president and the government step down. The country has had a long history of engagement with modern international groups; it is a founding member of the SAARC, the G77 and the Non-Aligned Movement, as well as a member of the United Nations and the Commonwealth of Nations.

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